Saturday, January 8, 2022

Glycosuria

When a young adult complains of thirst, excessive hunger, polyuria, exhaustion and loss of weight, the discovery of glycosuria usually confirms an obvious diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus. Glycosuria is a common symptom of both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.

Glycosuria, the presence of glucose in urine above normal levels, may be caused by either an increase in blood glucose such that the renal tubules are overwhelmed and complete reabsorption of presented glucose is not possible, a lowering of the renal threshold, or inhibition of renal tubule reabsorption.

The usual type of glycosuria is due to the presence of glucose in the urine. Four varieties will be considered.
*Diabetic Glycosuria
*Renal Glycosuria
*Glycosuria of Cerebral Origin
*Glycosuria of Endocrine (nonpancreatic) origin

Renal glycosuria is a much rarer form of glycosuria. The commonest cause of glycosuria is uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Abnormally elevated levels of glucose in the blood result in high amount of filtered glucose waiting to be reabsorbed through overactive SGLT2 (sodium glucose cotransporter 2) which execute reabsorption eventually.

The association between blood and urine glucose was first observed in the eighteenth century by Matthew Dobson, an English physician. For many years urine glucose testing was the major method used to monitor glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. Early methods of urine glucose detection included evaporation of urine to reveal sugar crystals and urine sugar fermentation by yeast.
Glycosuria

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